(2012), "Chapter 3 Assessment of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders", Bakken, J., Obiakor, F. (Ed.) Behavioral Disorders: Identification, Assessment, and Instruction of Students with EBD (Advances in Special Education, Vol.22), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0270-4013(2012)0000022006 Download as . Exposure to toxic stressors, such as maltreatment or violence, and individual, family, or community stressors can increase the risk of early-onset mental health problems, although such stressors are not necessary for the development of these problems.
Psychotherapies, including treatments that involve cognitive, psychological, and behavioral approaches, have substantially more lasting effects than do medications.
Some preschool treatments have been shown to be effective for years after the treatment ended, a finding not matched in longitudinal pharmacologic studies.
This report focuses on programs that target current diagnoses or clear clinical problems (rather than risk) in infants and toddlers and includes only those with rigorous randomized controlled empirical support.
Because the parent–child relationship is a central force in the early emotional and behavioral well-being of children, a number of empirically supported treatments focus on enhancing that relationship to promote child well-being.
Effective treatments exist to address early clinical concerns, including relationship disturbances, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive behavior disorders, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder.
Measured outcomes include improved attachment relationships, symptom reduction, diagnostic remission, enhanced functioning, and in one study, normalization of diurnal cortisol release patterns, which are known to be related to stress regulation and mood disorders.
The interventions are implemented by clinicians with training in the specific treatment modality, following manuals and with fidelity to the treatment model.
Primary care providers can be trained in these interventions but more often lead a medical home management approach that includes ongoing primary care management and support and concurrent comanagement with a clinician trained in implementing an evidence-based treatment (EBT).
These clinical presentations can be distinguished from the emotional and behavioral patterns of typically developing children by their symptoms, family history, and level of impairment and, in some disorders, physiologic signs.
Emotional, behavioral, and relationship disorders rarely are transient and often have lasting effects, including measurable differences in brain functioning in school-aged children and a high risk of later mental health problems.