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This phenomenon requires a lot of replacement to keep names familiar to students cropping up in the book from time to time.(After sneaking Paris Hilton’s name into the eighth edition three times, we were delighted to see her still in the news—make that “news.” She gets a photo this time.) There are still some important names from the past—Ronald Reagan is now moving into mythology, but at least the name is familiar—and of course not all references require familiarity on the part of the reader.
111 Does the Claim Conflict with Our Background Information? moo86677_fm_v 188 192 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages vi CONTENTS The Subjectivist Fallacy The Relativist Fallacy 194 195 Two Wrongs Make a Right 196 Red Herring/Smoke Screen Recap 197 199 Exercises 200 Chapter 7 More Fallacies The Ad Hominem Fallacy 211 211 The Personal Attack Ad Hominem 212 The Inconsistency Ad Hominem 212 The Circumstantial Ad Hominem 214 Poisoning the Well 214 The Genetic Fallacy 214 “Positive Ad Hominem Fallacies” 215 Straw Man 215 False Dilemma 217 The Perfectionist Fallacy 220 The Line-Drawing Fallacy 220 Slippery Slope 221 Misplacing the Burden of Proof Begging the Question Recap 222 226 228 Exercises 229 Chapter 8 Deductive Arguments I: Categorical Logic Categorical Claims 254 256 Venn Diagrams 257 Translation into Standard Form The Square of Opposition 263 Three Categorical Operations 258 265 Conversion 265 Obversion 266 Contraposition 266 Categorical Syllogisms 273 The Venn Diagram Method of Testing for Validity moo86677_fm_vi 275 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages CONTENTS Categorical Syllogisms with Unstated Premises Real-Life Syllogisms 279 The Rules Method of Testing for Validity 283 Recap vii 278 285 Additional Exercises 286 Chapter 9 Deductive Arguments II: Truth-Functional Logic Truth Tables and the Truth-Functional Symbols 297 298 Claim Variables 298 Truth Tables 298 Symbolizing Compound Claims 304 “If” and “Only If” 308 Necessary and Sufficient Conditions “Unless” 312 “Either . .” 312 310 Truth-Functional Arguments 314 The Truth-Table Method 314 The Short Truth-Table Method Deductions 318 322 Group I Rules: Elementary Valid Argument Patterns 323 Group II Rules: Truth-Functional Equivalences 328 Conditional Proof 334 Recap 338 Additional Exercises 338 Chapter 10 Three Kinds of Inductive Arguments 346 Arguing from the General to the Specific (Inductive Syllogisms) 347 Arguing from the Specific to the General (Inductive Generalizing) 348 Examples 351 Inductive Arguments from Analogy 353 Attacking the Analogy 358 Random Variation, Error Margins, and Confidence Levels 358 Everyday Inductive Arguments 360 Informal Error-Margin and Confidence-Level Indicators Fallacies in Inductive Reasoning Illicit Inductive Conversions moo86677_fm_vii 360 361 363 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages viii CONTENTS Analogies: The Rest of the Story Polls: Problems and Pitfalls 364 366 Self-Selected Samples 366 Slanted Questions 368 Playing by the Numbers Recap 368 371 Exercises 373 Chapter 11 Causal Explanation Two Kinds of Explanations 385 386 Physical Causal Explanations 386 Behavioral Causal Explanations 387 Explanatory Adequacy: A Relative Concept 389 The Importance of Testability 389 Nontestable Explanations 389 Circular Explanations 392 Unnecessary Complexity 392 Forming Hypotheses 393 The Method of Difference 393 The Method of Agreement 394 Causal Mechanisms and Background Knowledge The Best Diagnosis Method 397 General Causal Claims 396 399 Confirming Causal Hypotheses 400 Controlled Cause-to-Effect Experiments 400 Alternative Methods of Testing Causal Hypotheses in Human Populations 402 Nonexperimental Cause-to-Effect Studies 402 Nonexperimental Effect-to-Cause Studies 403 Experiments on Animals 403 Mistakes in Causal Reasoning 404 Confusing Effect with Cause in Medical Tests Overlooking Statistical Regression 406 Proof by Absence of Disproof 409 Appeal to Anecdote 409 Confusing Explanations with Excuses 410 Causation in the Law moo86677_fm_viii 405 410 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages CONTENTS Recap ix 413 Exercises 413 Chapter 12 Moral, Legal, and Aesthetic Reasoning Value Judgments 437 Moral Versus Nonmoral 438 Two Principles of Moral Reasoning 438 Moral Principles 440 Deriving Specific Moral Value Judgments Major Perspectives in Moral Reasoning Consequentialism 441 Duty Theory/Deontologism Moral Relativism 445 Religious Relativism 445 Religious Absolutism 446 Virtue Ethics 446 Moral Deliberation Legal Reasoning 436 440 441 443 447 456 Justifying Laws: Four Perspectives Aesthetic Reasoning 457 460 Eight Aesthetic Principles 460 Using Aesthetic Principles to Judge Aesthetic Value 462 Evaluating Aesthetic Criticism: Relevance and Truth 464 Why Reason Aesthetically?
2 The Basics: Claims, Issues, and Arguments Claims 6 Issues 6 Arguments 10 What Arguments Are Not Further Confusions 5 11 12 Arguments and Explanations 12 Arguments and Persuasion 13 Two Kinds of Good Arguments 14 Deductive Arguments 14 Inductive Arguments 14 Recognizing Arguments 15 The Two Parts of an Argument 15 The Language of Arguments 15 Other Terms and Concepts Truth 16 Knowledge 17 Value Judgments 16 17 Extraneous Considerations: Logical Window Dressing A Word About the Exercises Recap 21 21 Exercises 22 Chapter 2 Two Kinds of Reasoning Arguments: General Features 41 41 Conclusions Used as Premises 42 Unstated Premises and Conclusions moo86677_fm_iii 19 43 7/2/08 PM Revised Pages iv CONTENTS Two Kinds of Arguments 44 Deductive Arguments 44 Inductive Arguments 45 Beyond a Reasonable Doubt 48 Deduction, Induction, and Unstated Premises Techniques for Understanding Arguments 48 50 Clarifying an Argument’s Structure 51 Distinguishing Arguments from Window Dressing 53 Evaluating Arguments 54 Recap 55 Exercises 55 Chapter 3 Clear Thinking, Critical Thinking, and Clear Writing 69 Vagueness 71 Ambiguity 75 Semantic Ambiguity 76 Grouping Ambiguity 77 Syntactic Ambiguity 80 Generality 82 Defining Terms 82 Purposes of Definitions 84 Kinds of Definitions 86 Some Tips on Definitions 86 Writing Argumentative Essays 87 Good Writing Practices 89 Essay Types to Avoid 89 Persuasive Writing 90 Writing in a Diverse Society Recap 91 92 Exercises 93 Chapter 4 Credibility The Claim and Its Source 105 107 Assessing the Content of the Claim 111 Does the Claim Conflict with Our Personal Observations?
As previously indicated, we’ve extended that process in this edition, with ample evidence of how photos and other images can mislead us as well as teach us. There is also a separate section in Chapter 5 devoted to the manipulation of belief accomplished by the manipulation of images. Presentation We are constantly trying to seek the correct balance between explication and example.
There are more than 100 color photographs included in this edition—many of them the subject of analysis either in the caption or the accompanying text. It’s a political year as this edition emerges, and printed pages and television screens abound with images designed to make one candidate look better than another: Obama is presidential; no, Obama is wishy-washy. We rely both on our own classroom experience and on feedback from instructors who use the book in getting this balance right.
There are also instructors who go straight from Chapter 1 (and now, maybe, from Chapters 1 and 2) to the two chapters on deductive logic, follow that with a few sessions on fallacies, and the term is over.
On the other hand, there are a lot of adopters who never touch, or touch very lightly, the material on deductive logic. T54M66 2008 160—dc22 2008014434 The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication.As we get older (Moore comments on Parker’s wrinkles; Parker wonders what became of Moore’s hair), it is more and more important to remember that what’s moderately recent news for us is ancient history for most of our students. Dawson 489 Selections 16A and 16B: “Buying Notes Makes Sense at Lost-in-Crowd Campuses” from USA Today, and “Buying or Selling Notes Is Wrong” by Moore and Parker 491 Selections 17A and 17B: “Next, Comprehensive Reform of Gun Laws” from USA Today, and “Gun Laws Are No Answer” by Alan M. We were even more impressed that he could pronounce the name of our developmental editor, Susan Gouijnstook. ” (Editorial) 487 Selection 14: “Calling the Kettle Gay” by Ann Coulter 488 Selections 15A and 15B: “Make Fast Food Smoke-Free” from USA Today, and “Don’t Overreact to Smoke” by Brennan M. His past is mysterious; we’ve heard stories that he was stolen away from another publisher, and we’ve also heard that he escaped single-handedly after being captured during the fighting in Chechnya. It only took one conference call, though, to learn he meant business. Finally, Moore spoke: “Besides the usual updating, we have some serious changes for this edition,” he said. “I’m sending Gouijnstook to ride herd on the project.” We were impressed with the decisiveness.But we hope the effort to include familiar names will make it easier, as we said last time, to teach critical thinking without having to provide history lessons as well. We try throughout the book to defeat the tendency of such packaging to influence what we think about its subjects.Visuals In the previous edition, we went to full-color photographs and pointed out how such visual material could color our beliefs and attitudes just as it colors the image on the page. But whether it’s politics, advertising, or some other area in which visual images affect our judgment, we think you’ll find material here that will help you make your point.But, in the long run, these skills are all aimed at making wise decisions about what to believe and what to do.Furthermore, we believe that the subject is best taught by integrating logic, both formal and informal, with a variety of other skills and topics that can help us make sound decisions about claims, actions, policies, and practices. Here’s How” from USA Today, and “We Need More Prayer” by Armstrong Williams 496 Online Unit: Appendix 2 The Scrapbook of Unusual Issues Glossary 499 Answers, Suggestions, and Tips for Triangle Exercises 506 Credits Index moo86677_fm_x 529 531 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages xi Preface J im Bull, Ken King, Jon-David Hague—we’ve gone through editors like corn meal goes through a goose. And so, under the gentle urging and occasional whiplash of Susan G., and with some good advice from a phalanx of reviewers, we have once again produced what we hope is a better book than the one that went before. Gottlieb 493 Selection 18: Letter from the National Rifle Association 494 Selections 19A and 19B: “How Can School Prayer Possibly Hurt? “Probably the linguistic training they get in the secret service or the KGB or whatever,” Moore guessed.