Enzym Immuno Essay

Enzym Immuno Essay-50
The use of such antigens allows HIV screening tests to possess both sensitivity (to detect infection) and specificity (to detect noninfection).

The use of such antigens allows HIV screening tests to possess both sensitivity (to detect infection) and specificity (to detect noninfection).

The diversity of potential applications has conducted to the development of lytic enzyme systems with specific characteristics, suitable for satisfying the requirements of each particular application.

Nucleic acids used for molecular cloning can be of natural or synthetic origin, and their length ranges from a few to several thousands nucleotides.

These modifications are catalyzed by polymerases, ligases, nucleases, phosphatases, and methylases, respectively.

An arsenal of laboratory methods is available to screen blood, diagnose infection, and monitor disease progression in individuals infected by HIV.

Biotechnology could be traced back to thousands of years ago when human started to use yeasts to make liquor.

This may be the first dawn of biotechnology in food production.Specific antibody to HIV is produced shortly after infection, but the exact time depends on several factors, including host and viral characteristics.Importantly, antibody may be present at low levels during early infection but not at the detection limit of some assays.For the diagnosis to be correct, however, detection depends on the use of tests that are effective in identifying HIV antibodies, and not antibodies directed to other infectious agents that may be antigenically similar.Antigens used in HIV diagnostic tests must be appropriately specific, and usually are purified antigens from viral lysates, or antigens produced through recombinant or synthetic peptide technology.Nucleic acids can be extensively manipulated, in order to acquire specific characteristics and properties.Such manipulations include propagation, ligation, digestion, or addition of modifying groups such as phosphate or methyl groups.Tests with high sensitivity produce few false-negative results, whereas tests with high specificity produce few false-positive results.These classes of assays, performed in tandem, produce results that are highly accurate, reliable, and appropriate to protect the blood supply or assist in the diagnosis of HIV infection.Regardless of the particular screening test used, serum or plasma samples first are tested (screened) using a test with high sensitivity, most often an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), "rapid test," or "simple method" (described below).ELISA is the screening method used most commonly, with the other 2 methodologies offering more rapid results with simple procedures applicable for use in point-of-care testing and in developing countries.

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