Essay On National Integration And Cohesion In Pakistan

Essay On National Integration And Cohesion In Pakistan-71
The State of Pakistan was created under the Independence Act of 1947, an Act of the UK Parliament, which partitioned British India into two independent dominions of India and Pakistan.[1] According to the National Assembly website, [t]he Act made the existing Constituent Assemblies, the dominion legislatures.

The State of Pakistan was created under the Independence Act of 1947, an Act of the UK Parliament, which partitioned British India into two independent dominions of India and Pakistan.[1] According to the National Assembly website, [t]he Act made the existing Constituent Assemblies, the dominion legislatures.

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Under the Interim Constitution of Pakistan, which was adopted in April 1972, Pakistan’s first bicameral legislature was established.

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was later adopted in 1973.[25] The Parliament House building in Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, was inaugurated on May 28, 1986.

According to the National Assembly’s [t]he National Assembly is the country’s sovereign legislative body. Only the National Assembly, through its Public Accounts Committee, scrutinizes public spending and exercises control of expenditure incurred by the government.[30] Article 90 of the Constitution states that “the executive authority of the Federation shall be exercised in the name of the President by the Federal Government, consisting of the Prime Minister and the Federal Ministers, which shall act through the Prime Minister, who shall be the chief executive of the Federation.”[31] The Cabinet Ministers are made up of members from both houses of Parliament.

It embodies the will of the people to let themselves be governed under the democratic, multi-party Federal Parliamentary System . According to article 91(4) of the Constitution, the Cabinet “is collectively responsible to the National Assembly, which elects the Prime Minister.”[32] However, the number of Cabinet ministers who are members of the Senate must not exceed one-fourth of the number of federal ministers.[33] Article 41(2) of the Constitution stipulates that a person shall not be qualified for election as President unless he is a Muslim of not less than forty-five years of age and is qualified to be elected as a member of the National Assembly.[34] The President is elected for a term of five years by an Electoral College consisting of the members of both houses of Parliament, as well as members of the provincial assemblies.[35] The President is considered the head of state.

promotion of national cohesion and harmony.”[53] According to the Senate of Pakistan website, [t]he main purpose for the creation of the Senate of Pakistan was to give equal representation to all the federating units since the membership of the National Assembly was based on the population of each province.

Equal provincial membership in the Senate, thus, balances the provincial inequality in the National Assembly and dispels doubts and apprehension, if any, regarding deprivation and exploitation.[54] The Senate of Pakistan consists of 104 members elected indirectly by the members of the National Assembly and the members of the provincial assemblies.[55] Each of the four provincial assemblies elects twenty-three members from their respective provinces, including fourteen Senators to general seats, four women, four technical experts including Ulema (religious scholars), and one non-Muslim.[56] The members of the National Assembly from FATAs elect eight Senators to represent the FATAs.

It was unanimously passed by the Assembly in its session on 10th April 1973 and was authenticated by the President on 12th April 1973.

This Constitution, called the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973, was promulgated on 14th August 1973.

The 1962 Constitution provided for a federal state and a presidential system of government with a unicameral legislature.

The 1962 Constitution was abrogated on March 25, 1969, as a result of martial law being imposed for a second time.

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