To define avant-garde is a bit of a challenging task.The dictionary word originates from the French language and it translates to “vanguard” or “fore-guard”.This kind of departure from an established norm could also be seen in the Italian Renaissance, which encouraged nudity and represented figures from the Bible in an entirely naturalistic manner in both painting and sculpture, defying Byzantine and Gothic art, as well as the influential Catholic Church.
To define avant-garde is a bit of a challenging task.The dictionary word originates from the French language and it translates to “vanguard” or “fore-guard”.This kind of departure from an established norm could also be seen in the Italian Renaissance, which encouraged nudity and represented figures from the Bible in an entirely naturalistic manner in both painting and sculpture, defying Byzantine and Gothic art, as well as the influential Catholic Church.Tags: Write My HomeworkEssay About Playing BasketballProblem Solving Strategy Make A TableGood Narrative Written EssaysFormalist Criticism EssayTelephone Conversation Poem EssayLinda Nochlin Essay Why Are There No Great Female ArtistsSanchit Karve ThesisEssay S RealestateEssays On Travelling As A Means Of Education
Photography as a medium was arguably avant garde in itself, since having a portrait taken was no longer the prerogative of the very rich.
By the late nineteenth century, many photographers have rejected traditional settings and started to expand the genre of pictorial photography and promote it to High Art.
Because of such radical nature and the fact it was going against the widely accepted existing forms, ideas and processes, avant-garde was often, if not always, shocking and controversial.
One of the main characteristics of avant garde was going against the academic understanding of art, the imposed rules on what an artwork should look like and the way it should be produced.
Having an untold expressive power and becoming a vehicle of modern consciousness that occurred after the World War I, many avant garde artists turned to photography to capture the soul of contemporary industrial society.
During the 1920s and ‘30s, various unconventional forms and techniques, such as abstract photograms or photomontages started, to emerge.Along with other artist groups and movements which developed at around the same time, such as Symbolism, Post-Impressionism and subsequently Die Brücke and Fauvism, the end of the 19th century and the advent of the 20th presented itself as the beginning of something completely unprecedented.A very important question was asked in the introduction of this text and it is this one: What is considered ahead of its time, and what does avant garde mean ?The concept of avant garde was also applied to radical developments in black American jazz between 1950s and 1960s.Pursuing technical innovations and emotional expression, avant garde jazz was a unique hybrid that combined the extended technique, originality and genius with improvisational skills.What first started as a simple tool for documentation, became a genuine artistic medium in its own right.When first simple-to-use small format cameras reached the streets, the photography was completely democratized and revolutionized as a medium with various avant garde approaches that greatly affected the visual culture.On May 17, 1863, Paris saw the opening of the Salon des Refusés, an exhibition of artworks that were rejected by the jury of the prestigious Paris Salon, held annually by the Académie des Beaux-Arts.It was the very first time the term avant garde, or avant-garde, was used in relations to the arts, and it marked the beginning of a cultural revolution.Various artists experimented with this powerful form, including László Moholy-Nagy, who is now considered a father of avant garde photography, August Sander and Albert Renger-Patzsch.The avant garde photography in France, whose capital served as the unquestioned center of the international avant garde, was rooted in Surrealism that advocated the social transformation by rejecting bourgeois values and conventions.