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Moreover, ambient air pollution ranked ninth among the modifiable disease risk factors, being listed above other commonly recognized factors, such as low physical activity, a high-sodium diet, high cholesterol, and drug use.
Ozone concentrations are highest during the warmest, high-intensity sunlight hours of the day, often showing a broad peak from noon to about 9 pm when many people are outdoors, resulting in significant human exposure.
Traffic-related pollutants, such as ultrafine particles and soot, often peak during the morning and evening rush hours, resulting in high exposures for people commuting.
An important example is ozone, which is formed through complex photochemical reactions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic components.
Particulate matter consists of particles from a wide variety of sources that differ in size and composition.
Subsequent studies in the 1990s, such as the Harvard Six Cities Associations with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are also seen with short-term (e.g.
day-to-day fluctuations) pollutant exposures of residents in large urban areas worldwide, including the United States of America Among multiple pathways linking air pollution to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, the most relevant are the induction of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, atherothrombosis, and arrhythmogenesis.
From a health perspective, important components of this mixture include airborne particulate matter (PM) and the gaseous pollutants ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO are motorized road traffic, power generation, industrial sources, and residential heating.
Secondary pollutants are formed in the atmosphere from other components.
Air pollution shows substantial variability both between areas (higher in Southern Europe) and within areas.
Spatial variation is mostly related to the presence of local and regional scale sources.