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The study participants noted that their identity changes and evolves in different situations and across the lifespan.
Both theory-driven (deductive) and data-driven (inductive) stages of analysis can be used to generate themes from the response codes.
The researcher and research assistants independently examine the response-code data for theory-driven themes according to the codebook, then meet to resolve coding discrepancies and identify quotes that did not fit within the theory-driven themes.
The researcher then will need to select certain themes to report.
This selection is based on what the researcher determines to be the smallest-sized theme of interest for answering the research question (i.e., what is the smallest number of people who gave a response that fits within that theme? The researcher also may choose to highlight themes of particular theoretical interest.
During the data-collection stage, the researcher may realize previously unanticipated characteristics of the construct by analyzing participants’ responses and consequently refine subsequent data collection.
The grounded-theory approach also may be applied to the data-analysis stage of a study.Grounded theory is an approach whereby the researcher refers back to the literature relevant to the research topic and to qualitative observations throughout data collection and analysis.Review of the literature and qualitative data can help shape subsequent data collection and analysis according to new perspectives that arise from reference to previous research and participants’ observations.Ideally, the researcher should analyze the data with a team of two or more research assistants familiar with the codebook and coding procedures.After response codes are identified, researchers can sort them into themes.Our research team identified an internal empowerment theme and an external empowerment theme.Internal empowerment refers to the sense of a strong identity and self-confidence; external empowerment refers to the desire and self-efficacy to make a positive change in one’s own life and in the community.During this final stage of coding, subthemes may be identified.These may emerge when several participants give similar detailed descriptions of a characteristic of the theme.The grounded-theory approach to qualitative data analysis is heavily directed by the primary researcher.This element of the approach can introduce bias into the analysis.