Phtosynthesis Projects

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These nutrients are oxidized to produce carbon dioxide and water, and to release chemical energy to drive the organism's metabolism. A typical plant cell contains about 10 to 100 chloroplasts. This membrane is composed of a phospholipid inner membrane, a phospholipid outer membrane, and an intermembrane space.Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are distinct processes, as they take place through different sequences of chemical reactions and in different cellular compartments. Enclosed by the membrane is an aqueous fluid called the stroma.During the second stage, the light-independent reactions use these products to capture and reduce carbon dioxide. Plants absorb light primarily using the pigment chlorophyll.

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In these light-dependent reactions, some energy is used to strip electrons from suitable substances, such as water, producing oxygen gas.

The hydrogen freed by the splitting of water is used in the creation of two further compounds that serve as short-term stores of energy, enabling its transfer to drive other reactions: these compounds are reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the "energy currency" of cells.

Photosynthetic organisms are photoautotrophs, which means that they are able to synthesize food directly from carbon dioxide and water using energy from light.

However, not all organisms use carbon dioxide as a source of carbon atoms to carry out photosynthesis; photoheterotrophs use organic compounds, rather than carbon dioxide, as a source of carbon.

The general equation for photosynthesis as first proposed by Cornelis van Niel is therefore: This equation emphasizes that water is both a reactant in the light-dependent reaction and a product of the light-independent reaction, but canceling n water molecules from each side gives the net equation: Photosynthesis occurs in two stages. Embedded within the stroma are stacks of thylakoids (grana), which are the site of photosynthesis. The thylakoid itself is enclosed by the thylakoid membrane, and within the enclosed volume is a lumen or thylakoid space.

In the first stage, light-dependent reactions or light reactions capture the energy of light and use it to make the energy-storage molecules ATP and NADPH. Embedded in the thylakoid membrane are integral and peripheral membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic system.The bacteriorhodopsin changes its configuration in response to sunlight, acting as a proton pump. These pigments are embedded in plants and algae in complexes called antenna proteins.This produces a proton gradient more directly, which is then converted to chemical energy. In such proteins, the pigments are arranged to work together.This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek φῶς, phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις, synthesis, "putting together".In most cases, oxygen is also released as a waste product.Carbon dioxide is converted into sugars in a process called carbon fixation; photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrate. In general outline, photosynthesis is the opposite of cellular respiration: while photosynthesis is a process of reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate, cellular respiration is the oxidation of carbohydrate or other nutrients to carbon dioxide.Nutrients used in cellular respiration include carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids. plastoglobule (drop of lipids) In plants and algae, photosynthesis takes place in organelles called chloroplasts.In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, photosynthesis releases oxygen.This is called oxygenic photosynthesis and is by far the most common type of photosynthesis used by living organisms.Dark red and blue-green indicate regions of high photosynthetic activity in the ocean and on land, respectively.Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities.


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