In Bermuda, a British territory, the parliament reversed the supreme court’s legalization of same-sex marriage in 2017; that was challenged in local courts and could now go to a London court of appeals. The governments of Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Paraguay have enacted constitutional bans on same-sex marriage.According to a 2016 survey [PDF] by the International LGBTI Association (ILGA), 54 percent of Canadians, 48 percent of Chileans, and 57 percent of Argentines are in favor of same-sex marriage.In Central America, support is much lower: 33 percent of Costa Ricans, 28 percent of Nicaraguans, and 27 percent of Ecuadorians support same-sex marriage.Two years later, the United Nations appointed its first-ever independent expert on sexual orientation and gender identity.“What is important here is the gradual building of consensus,” says Graeme Reid, director of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights program at Human Rights Watch.While in 2015 Ireland became the first country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage through popular referendum, lawmakers in Northern Ireland have defeated bills to legalize same-sex marriage five times.Croatians approved a constitutional ban on same-sex marriage in a 2013 referendum, though the country’s parliament allowed civil partnerships a year later.Central American countries do not recognize same-sex couples, though some have limited antidiscrimination protections.Costa Rica’s constitutional court ruled that same-sex marriage must be legalized by mid-2020.“There’s an accumulation of moral pressure on member states to at least address the most overt forms of discrimination or violence.” Activists in the international arena have focused on antiviolence and antidiscrimination campaigns rather than same-sex marriage.“There’s no sensible diplomat who would think that pushing same-sex marriage on a country that’s not ready for it is a good idea,” says Dorf. territories, came amid dramatic shifts in public opinion: 67 percent of Americans polled in 2018 approved of same-sex marriage, up from 27 percent in 1996. In June 2013, the Supreme Court struck down the parts of DOMA that denied federal benefits to same-sex couples. Supreme Court ruled in favor of a Colorado baker who refused to make a wedding cake for a same-sex couple because of his religious beliefs, violating the state’s civil rights law.