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It is unlikely that reference books will contain the latest information on a topic because of the time it takes for publication.
Although this may not be practically possible, the researcher should be careful not to select only those papers that are easiest to obtain as this may bias the review.
Hence, further steps should be taken to obtain more elusive papers and/or obtain a random selection of relevant papers.
Conversely, the null hypothesis often states what the researcher does not expect to be the case.
Its purpose is for use in the statistical test of reliability of results.
However, often, hypotheses are not stated in research papers, primarily because of authors' assumptions that the reader can implicitly determine the hypotheses being tested from the description of the purpose or statement of the problem, which is most commonly stated at the end of the introduction. For example, it may be hypothesised that the mean cholesterol levels of trained men are lower than those of sedentary men.
This is a research hypothesis, as it states what the results are expected to be.
A thorough understanding of the topic to be researched is essential.
To advance the boundaries of knowledge within a specific area, it is necessary to know the status quo within that area.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the process and stages involved in developing a research idea from its inception to realisation.
It is not designed to be an all encompassing summary of the research process.