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This process was successfully applied to the culture of mouse embryonic stem cells, with comparable effect, demonstrating amenability to functionalisation and scale-up development.Overall this system has allowed for the culture of PSCs for enhanced differentiation and allowed for novel insights into how they interact with their microenvironment through mechanotransduction.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in developed societies.
Vascular stem cells (VSCs) have been proposed as a cell population with regenerative potential for CVD.
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are characterized by the ability of self‑renewal and capacity to proliferate and produce new nervous tissue.
NSCs are capable of differentiating to three lineages of neural cells, including neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes.
This is in part likely to be a result of adaptation to the artificial culture environment, known to force cell structural away from the native state, resulting in altered gene expression.
The mechanisms by which PSCs, specifically, integrate cues from their physical microenvironment remain largely unexplored.This work utilised the varying topographies provided by three commercial poly HIPE scaffolds (Alvetex®), and the human EC cell line, TERA2 The three scaffolds of differing topography were considered for their ability to maintain pluripotency; a micro-topography resulted in immediate evidence of differentiation.A mixed micro/nano and nano-topography substrate appeared to maintain pluripotency.The results demonstrated that, after 5 days of culture, the average number of neurospheres in the cultured ts NSCs was significantly lower compared with r NSCs (P=0.0031).Additionally, compared with the r NSCs, ts NSCs exhibited an enhanced differentiation ability towards neurons.Furthermore, hippocampal NSCs transplantation can improve the neurological deficits associated with expression of cytokines.Therefore, to compare the properties of NSCs of tree shrews and rats in vitro, NSCs from tree shrews (ts NSCs) and rats f(r NSCs) were isolated.However, their use for such purposes is hampered for a number of reasons.Both the reprogramming of somatic cells into PSCs and their differentiation for use in research and the clinic are extremely low yielding.Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed.Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.