Thus, teachers need to provide students with challenging but attainable learning tasks and help them succeed.
What is more, students are quick to pick up the expectations of success or failure that others have for them.
Expectations Affect Performance Students respond to their own expectations of what they can and cannot learn.
If they believe they are able to learn something, whether solving equations or riding a bicycle, they usually make headway.
Similarly, students cannot learn to think critically, analyze information, communicate scientific ideas, make logical arguments, work as part of a team, and acquire other desirable skills unless they are permitted and encouraged to do those things over and over in many contexts.
Effective Learning by Students Requires Feedback The mere repetition of tasks by studentswhether manual or intellectualis unlikely to lead to improved skills or keener insights.
Mostly, a person does this by connecting new information and concepts to what he or she already believes.
Conceptsthe essential units of human thoughtthat do not have multiple links with how a student thinks about the world are not likely to be remembered or useful.
The alternatives to the necessary restructuring are to distort the new information to fit their old ideas or to reject the new information entirely.
Students come to school with their own ideas, some correct and some not, about almost every topic they are likely to encounter.