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This will presumably be the normal state of affairs on roads for quite some time even after the introduction of autonomous vehicles; it is, therefore, of great practical significance to gain a good understanding of precisely this situation to predict and prevent any systemic effects that may occur.Since such vehicles do not yet exist, portions of the following observations must be regarded as an initial appraisal of possible developments presented as a scenario.Ideally each vehicle should also be indexed; this is circumvented in the following by describing the vehicle driving ahead with uppercase letters , although reaction time, a notoriously thorny construct, is excluded entirely. For example, one important question for the following observations is how precisely an autonomous vehicle moves.
This is important with regard to defining how the instruments of traffic management need to be developed in the future to enable them to handle autonomous vehicles in the transportation system.
Of particular interest in this context is mixed traffic, in which normal and autonomously driving vehicles interact with each other.
A good example of this is the distance to the vehicle ahead expressed in terms of the time gap: an autonomous vehicle can achieve times of 0.3…0.5 s , whereas vehicles driven by humans are legally required to maintain a distance of at least 0.9 s (in Germany).
The legal recommendation is actually 2.0 s, but this is seldom maintained except when traffic volumes are low.
One such AIC scenario is highly similar to Use Case #1 “Interstate Pilot Using Driver for Extended Availability”, which in turn (from a traffic-flow standpoint) is a special variant of Use Case #3, “Full Automation Using Driver for Extended Availability”.
This is also the use case that plays the most important role in this chapter, notwithstanding the fact that it is rather irrelevant from the traffic-flow standpoint whether the driver is available or not.
This paper will examine how autonomous vehicles affect typical traffic management applications by looking at a few examples which have not been developed in all specifics.
These examples, in order of increasing complexity, are the simulation of a single traffic signal system (Sect. Some of the questions to be considered here can draw on the effects of the introduction of intelligent speed control (autonomous intelligent speed control—AIC) on traffic flow on highways in particular  provide a more in-depth overview than is possible in this chapter.
That is certainly not entirely adequate; and yet driving does work in many cases on the assumption that the other drivers will behave more or less as one does oneself.
However, that also means that the approach flowing from this and the following equation can be tricked by “strange” behavior on the part of the leading vehicle.