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Recently, analogous effects have been studied in the context of gauge theories.
The thesis challenges the validity of this viewpoint by critiquing regulatory risk assessment and the peer review and advisory processes that have shaped RF/MW regulation.
It will be shown that these processes have been prone to political manipulation and conflicts of interests leading to various scientific perspectives being marginalised with reluctance on the part of regulators to make decisions that might inconvenience industry interests.
The study starts by a discussion on the fundamental aspects of electrodynamics as U(1) gauge invariant theory.
Next, the tools of conformal compactification and Penrose diagram of Minkowski space are introduced. Starting with Maxwell's equations, a partial differential equation is derived, in which the two-sphere divergence of the memory vector depends on the total charge flux F that reaches the null infinity and the initial and final values of the radial component of the electric field.
To substantiate these claims the thesis provides an assessment of the development of the American RF/MW standard from the 1950’s and its later revisions under the IEEE, the ongoing development of guidelines and standards by ICNIRP and IEGM and RF/MW standard development in Australia.
The thesis concludes with the argument that, given the sheer number of people exposed to RF/MW from telecommunications devices, there is an urgent need to reform the standard setting process and to conduct an international re-assessment of the biological limits placed on current RF/MW standards.2.5 Exposure to non-ionising radiation, at exposure levels sufficient to cause heating above 1ºC, is known to cause adverse health effects. Knowledge about and acceptance of the effects of non-thermal exposure to electromagnetic radiation remains limited and contentious.2.6 As stated earlier, a number of expert reviews of the literature have been conducted, which have drawn the following conclusions in relation to the health effects of non-ionising radiation, including radiofrequency radiation: CSIRO, 1994 This report concluded that there was insufficient reliable scientific evidence on which to base sound conclusions about safety of radio frequency (RF) exposures in telecommunications.It is a classically observable effect that takes place in the asymptotic region of spacetime.The study of memory effects started in gravitational physics where the effect is manifested as a permanent displacement in a configuration of test particles due to gravitational waves.It stated that ‘because of its equivocal nature, the data base for RF emissions has limited value.It may be dangerous to make general statements on safety based on lack of evidence of harmful effects when so little relevant research has been carried out’.2.3 The Committee received submissions and evidence from a number of scientists and health professionals, as well as community organisations and individuals.Some claimed that there is ample evidence of biological and/or adverse health effects associated with non-thermal levels of exposure to electromagnetic radiation, while others concluded that no clear relationship has been established.Since a LGT is a local symmetry of U(1) theory, there must be a conserved Noether current and Noether charge associated with it.As the memory effect generates a LGT, it is natural to expect a connection between the memory effect and the Noether charge.