The rapid and broad use by the American farmer of glyphosate-resistant soybeans and -expressing cotton and corn attests to the commercial success of these transgenic crops (James 1998, USDA-NASS 2001).
Based on the successes of these initial transgenic crops, research laboratories throughout the world are now studying a wide variety of traits/ genes that could greatly expand the spectrum of products from such plants.
As such, our experience with the few herbicide-tolerant and insect- and disease-resistant varieties that have been commercialized to date provides a very limited basis for predicting questions needed to be asked when future plants with very different phenotypic traits are assessed for environmental risks. The first includes an overview discussion of some new kinds of transgenic crops and a selective discussion of some environmental risk issues that may be associated with the next generation of transgenic crops.
The second section focuses on policy, beginning with a general discussion of the context in which environmental risk from transgenic crops should be framed and then moving on to specific topics that may arise as policies for the next generation of transgenic crops evolve.
The final section is a discussion of some research needs to address future issues.
This section describes anticipated future transgenic crops, including some expected to be commercialized in the next couple of years, others that may reach commercial status on a midterm horizon sometime during the next decade, and others that are mere twinkles of ideas for transgenic crops that will require research breakthroughs before they can reach fruition.But one group of scientists made hummus out of their approach when they botched what evidently was a key element of a figure in their 2011 paper in L.) and regeneration of insect-resistant transgenic plants,” came from researchers at the National Botanical Research Institute in Lucknow, India.Cited three times, according to Thomson Scientific’s Web of Knowledge, it purported to find that: suspension at OD600 0.3 with 48 h of co-cultivation period at 20°C was found optimal for transforming 10-day-old MEA-derived callus.The application of biological sciences in agriculture has become increasingly prominent in the past decade.Genes were first inserted into corn using molecular techniques in 1989, and by the late 1990s farmers were growing millions of acres of transgenic corn.These findings will certainly accelerate the development of chickpea plants with novel traits.This article has been retracted on the demand of the authors because of error in one figure panel. All of the authors have agreed with the retraction notice and sincerely regret the inconvenience that this retraction causes to PCR and its readership.One key finding is that particular phenotypic characteristics of a given transgenic plant determine its likely environmental interactions; the fact that recombinant DNA methods were used in its development only indirectly affects these interactions by influencing the phenotypic characteristics of the transgenic plant.Indeed, the significance of biotechnology for environmental risk resides primarily in the fact that a much broader array of phenotypic traits can be incorporated into crop plants than was possible about a decade ago.The expression level of Bt-Cry protein in T0 and T1 transgenic chickpea plants was achieved maximum up to 116 ng mg−1 of soluble protein, which efficiently causes 100% mortality to second instar larvae of as analyzed by an insect mortality bioassay.Our results demonstrate an efficient and rapid transformation system of chickpea for producing non-chimeric transgenic plants with high frequency.