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He graduated with a Master of Arts in human development from Boston College, where he served as sports editor for The Observer and a columnist for The Heights, the school's premier independent student newspaper.
The rules for using numbers in academic writing vary among academic disciplines.
Her easy-to-use Grammar for People Who Hate Rules helps people write and speak with authority and confidence.
She encourages and welcomes questions and comments.
“Three,” “3” and “III” are all symbols used to express the same number (or the concept of “threeness”). The small numbers, such as whole numbers smaller than ten, should be spelled out. If you don’t spell numbers out it will look like you’re sending an instant message, and you want to be more formal than that in your writing. No other standard rule: Experts don’t always agree on other rules. In Continental Europe the opposite is true, periods are used to separate large numbers and the comma is used for decimals. Use “About 400 million people speak Spanish natively,” instead of “About 400,000,000 people speak Spanish natively If you’re using the exact number, you’d write it out, of course.
A number is an abstract concept while a numeral is a symbol used to express that number. So write the size of Alaska as 571,951 square miles instead of 571951 square miles. Make it “Fourscore and seven years ago,” not “4 score and 7 years ago.” That means you might have to rewrite some sentences: “Fans bought 400,000 copies the first day”. Rounded numbers over a million are written as a numeral plus a word. It can be confusing if you write “7 13-year-olds”, so write one of them as a numeral, like “seven 13-year-olds”. Fortunately, these rules are actually fairly straightforward and easy to remember. Start to consider the various formatting rules that exist for including numbers in your essay, and you might find yourself overwhelmed by the conventions of writing.The main rules about the use of numbers in standard academic writing are about: Grammar checkers will not help you with the acceptable presentation of numbers in academic writing.You need to know and use the conventions for writing numbers correctly when you are writing and proofreading your work.This is similar to APA Style’s rules for presenting numerical data (see pages 111–114 in the show both numbers in a page range being written out in full, regardless of size, and example 23 on page 204 demonstrates the same concept applied to a range of years.These rules relate to APA Style’s emphasis on the importance of specificity and clarity in scientific writing.Although usage varies, most people spell out numbers that can be expressed in one or two words and use figures for numbers that are three or more words long.Note: If you are using a specific citation style, such as MLA or APA, consult the style manual for specific formatting instructions.Unless your organization or publication has specific guidelines, consider these general recommendations: Will all children ages 7–12 please line up in the hallway. If you have a question related to numbers, let me know. The box is 9 inches long by 7 inches wide by 5 inches high, and it weighs 12 pounds when packed with books.